After the vote, Parliament is to be suspended, Downing Street has announced - until the Queen's Speech on October 14.
So, we're all set for another big day in Westminster, here's how it will unfold:
What will happen in Westminster on Monday?
Despite the petition, Downing Street has announced that following today's Commons proceedings, Parliament will be prorogued.
No doubt lots of other things will happen, but among them, Michael Gove will appear before the House of Lords EU Committee to give evidence about the Government’s Brexit negotiations and no-deal preparations - which he is head of.
He will be probed on topics such as how the Government’s preparations for a no-deal Brexit have been accelerated, and what are the biggest risks with a such a departure.
Will there be an election before October 31?
It is looking less and less likely.
The Government has tabled a motion calling for an early poll, which will also be debated on Monday, but with opposition parties agreeing not to support it, it is unlikely to garner the backing of the two-thirds of MPs needed for it to pass.
So no chance of an early election?
There is still a chance, yes.
One could be triggered by Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn calling a no-confidence motion in the Government on Monday and Mr Johnson losing it.
It could also happen if, first, the Brexit deadline is extended and the Government again calls an early poll, and this time two-thirds of MPs do support that idea, given the comfort of a later deadline - something that stopped them from backing one last week.
What else is the Prime Minister doing on Monday?
He flew to Dublin to meet Leo Varadkar and the pair had a constructive meeting on Brexit and "common ground was established".
But a joint statement released following the meeting said "significant gaps remain".
Speaking in Ireland, Mr Johnson insisted he wanted "to find a deal" and claimed a no deal outcome would represent a "failure of statecraft" by all concerned.
Might Brexit still happen with a deal?
Despite Parliament’s problems grappling with deal proposals in the past, it is still considered possible.
Now that a no-deal Brexit is starting to look less likely to pass through Parliament, analysts suggest framing a deal that gets passed could be the easiest way for Mr Johnson to deliver on his vow of completing Brexit.