The chart-topping singer asked for her marriage with the charity entrepreneur to be dissolved at a court in Los Angeles on Thursday.
The divorce filing listed "irreconcilable differences" as the reason for the split and said Adele, 31, is requesting joint and physical custody of the couple’s six-year-old son, Angelo.
Spousal support and the separation of their assets and properties will be determined in mediation, according to the documents.
While there are no official figures, Tottenham-born Adele is believed to be one of the richest musicians in the world thanks to her chart-topping albums and world tours.
She had been dating Konecki since 2011 and it was widely reported they tied the knot in a secret 2016 ceremony, though the divorce filing lists the date as May 4 2018.
The date of separation is yet to be determined, the papers added.
Confirmation of the multi-Grammy Award-winning singer’s divorce comes five months after it was announced she and Konecki, 45, were separating.
Speaking at the time, a representative for the star said: "They are committed to raising their son together lovingly.
"As always they ask for privacy. There will be no further comment."
Adele, full name Adele Adkins, has released three studio albums, two of which, 2011’s 21 and 2015’s 25, won album of the year at the Grammys.