Justin Trudeau has won a second term as prime minister in Canada’s national elections, losing his majority but delivering unexpectedly strong results despite recent scandals which tarnished his image.
Mr Trudeau’s Liberal party took the most seats in parliament, giving it the best chance to form a government.
However, falling short of a majority means the Liberals will have to rely on an opposition party to pass legislation.
Robert Bothwell, a professor of Canadian history and international relations at the University of Toronto, said: “It’s not quite the same as 2015. It’s not all owing to the leader.
“Trudeau is prime minister because the rest of the party was able to pull itself together and prevail.
"While Trudeau certainly deserves credit for what has happened, he’s really going to have to demonstrate qualities that he hasn’t yet shown.”
However, the results were a victory for Mr Trudeau, whose clean-cut image took a hit after old photos of him in darkening his skin at fancy dress parties surfaced last month.
“I’m surprised at how well Trudeau has done,” said Nelson Wiseman, a political science professor at the University of Toronto.
“I don’t think anybody expected Trudeau to get a majority but they are not that far off.”
With results still trickling in early on Tuesday, the Liberals had 157 seats – 13 short of the 170 needed for a majority in the 338-seat House of Commons.
Mr Trudeau said: “Tonight Canadians rejected division and negativity. They rejected cuts and austerity. They elected a progressive agenda and strong action on climate change.”
His address to supporters came, unusually, as his Conservative rival Andrew Scheer had just begun speaking to his own supporters, forcing networks to tear away from Mr Scheer’s speech.
However, the prime minister struck a conciliatory note as he said: “To those who did not vote for us: know that we will work every single day for you, we will govern for everyone.”
The Canadian vote came down to what was essentially a choice between the handsome and charismatic Mr Trudeau and Mr Scheer, the Conservatives’ unassuming leader who was seen as the perfect antidote to the incumbent’s flash and celebrity.
Mr Trudeau reasserted liberalism in 2015 after almost 10 years of Conservative Party government in Canada, but scandals combined with high expectations damaged his prospects.
Perhaps sensing Mr Trudeau was in trouble, Barack Obama made an unprecedented endorsement by a former American president in urging Canadians to re-elect Mr Trudeau, saying that the world needs his progressive leadership now.
Mr Trudeau, son of the liberal icon and late prime minister Pierre Trudeau, is one of the few remaining progressive world leaders in the Trump era and even appeared on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine under the headline: “Why Can’t He Be Our President?”
Mr Bothwell said he expected 40-year-old Mr Scheer to resign, saying: “He’s gone. He ran a really dirty campaign. There is nothing to be proud of on his side. He had the opportunity and blew it.”
Among other things, Mr Scheer called Trudeau a phoney who could not even remember how many times he had worn blackface.
In his concession speech, Mr Scheer said the results showed Mr Trudeau was much weakened since his 2015 election, when pundits had predicted the beginning of another Trudeau dynasty.
“Tonight Conservatives have put Justin Trudeau on notice,” Mr Scheer said. “And Mr Trudeau – when your government falls, Conservatives will be ready and we will win.”
Mr Trudeau also was hurt by a scandal that erupted this year when his former attorney general said he pressured her to halt the prosecution of a Quebec company. Mr Trudeau has said he was standing up for jobs, but the damage gave a boost to the Conservative Party.
Mr Trudeau’s Liberals will likely rely on the New Democrats to form a government and pass legislation.
Opposition New Democrat leader Jagmeet Singh said he had congratulated Mr Trudeau and vowed to play a constructive role in parliament.