Lecturers and academic staff at around half of the UK's universities have begun a series of walkouts over disputes on pay and pensions.
Sixty universities across England, Wales and staff are due to be effected over one or both of the disputes on pay or pensions.
Scroll down for the full list of universities taking industrial action.
The strike action by the University and College Union is due to last eight days, with more than a million students affects.
Up to 43,000 members of the UCU will mount picket lines across campuses, with protests and other forms of industrial action set to go ahead.
Professor Chris Chatwin, President of the local Sussex branch of the University and College Union, explains his decision to go on strike
Those going on strike include lecturers, student support services staff, admissions tutors, librarians, technicians and administrators.
The UCU general secretary Jo Grady has warned there could be more strikes in the new year if issues on pensions and pay remain unresolved.
University leader said they want to reduce the impact the strikes will have an insist they want to work with unions to come to an agreement.
UCU staff claim they are at "breaking point", citing issues around workloads, real-terms cuts in pay, a 15% gender pay gap and changes to the Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS), which the union says will leave members paying in more and receiving less in retirement.
Many universities were also employing academic staff on “discredited” zero hours contracts, said the union.
“The employers seem to want to test the mettle of staff and see if they will turn up on picket lines,” said Ms Grady.
“It is really unfortunate they have decided to do that because they are misjudging their staff. More and more people are joining the union and there is a real feeling of anger."
There are 42 institutions where UCU members are taking action over both pay and pensions. These are:
University of Durham
The Open University
The University of Bath
The University of Dundee
The University of Leeds
The University of Manchester
The University of Sheffield
University of Nottingham
The University of Stirling
University College London
The University of Birmingham
The University of Bradford
The University of Bristol
The University of Cambridge
The University of Edinburgh
The University of Exeter
The University of Essex
The University of Glasgow
The University of Lancaster
The University of Leicester
Queen Mary University of London
The University of Reading
The University of Southampton
The University of St Andrews
Courtauld Institute of Art
The University of Strathclyde
The University of Wales
The University of Warwick
The University of York
The University of Liverpool
The University of Sussex
The University of Ulster
Queen's University Belfast
Fourteen will be affected by workers taking action over pay and conditions. These are:
Bishop Grosseteste University
Edge Hill University
Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow School of Art
Liverpool Hope University
Liverpool Institute of Performing Arts
Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh
St Mary's University College, Belfast
Sheffield Hallam University
The University of Brighton
The University of Kent
The University of Oxford
Four will be affected due to the pensions strike only. These are:
Scottish Association of Marine Science
The University of East Anglia
Institute for Development Studies
University of Aberdeen