- Video report by ITV News Correspondent Sejal Karia
Lecturers and academic staff at around half of the UK's universities have begun a series of walkouts over disputes on pay and pensions.
Sixty universities across England, Wales and staff are due to be effected over one or both of the disputes on pay or pensions.
Scroll down for the full list of universities taking industrial action.
The strike action by the University and College Union is due to last eight days, with more than a million students affects.
Up to 43,000 members of the UCU will mount picket lines across campuses, with protests and other forms of industrial action set to go ahead.
- Professor Chris Chatwin, President of the local Sussex branch of the University and College Union, explains his decision to go on strike
Those going on strike include lecturers, student support services staff, admissions tutors, librarians, technicians and administrators.
The UCU general secretary Jo Grady has warned there could be more strikes in the new year if issues on pensions and pay remain unresolved.
University leader said they want to reduce the impact the strikes will have an insist they want to work with unions to come to an agreement.
UCU staff claim they are at "breaking point", citing issues around workloads, real-terms cuts in pay, a 15% gender pay gap and changes to the Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS), which the union says will leave members paying in more and receiving less in retirement.
Many universities were also employing academic staff on “discredited” zero hours contracts, said the union.
“The employers seem to want to test the mettle of staff and see if they will turn up on picket lines,” said Ms Grady.
“It is really unfortunate they have decided to do that because they are misjudging their staff. More and more people are joining the union and there is a real feeling of anger."
There are 42 institutions where UCU members are taking action over both pay and pensions. These are:
- Aston University
- Bangor University
- Cardiff University
- University of Durham
- Heriot-Watt University
- Loughborough University
- Newcastle University
- The Open University
- The University of Bath
- The University of Dundee
- The University of Leeds
- The University of Manchester
- The University of Sheffield
- University of Nottingham
- The University of Stirling
- University College London
- The University of Birmingham
- The University of Bradford
- The University of Bristol
- The University of Cambridge
- The University of Edinburgh
- The University of Exeter
- The University of Essex
- The University of Glasgow
- The University of Lancaster
- The University of Leicester
- City University
- Goldsmiths College
- Queen Mary University of London
- Royal Holloway
- The University of Reading
- The University of Southampton
- The University of St Andrews
- Courtauld Institute of Art
- The University of Strathclyde
- The University of Wales
- The University of Warwick
- The University of York
- The University of Liverpool
- The University of Sussex
- The University of Ulster
- Queen's University Belfast
Fourteen will be affected by workers taking action over pay and conditions. These are:
- Bishop Grosseteste University
- Bournemouth University
- Edge Hill University
- Glasgow Caledonian University
- Glasgow School of Art
- Liverpool Hope University
- Liverpool Institute of Performing Arts
- Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh
- St Mary's University College, Belfast
- Roehampton University
- Sheffield Hallam University
- The University of Brighton
- The University of Kent
- The University of Oxford
Four will be affected due to the pensions strike only. These are:
- Scottish Association of Marine Science
- The University of East Anglia
- Institute for Development Studies
- University of Aberdeen