Beyond Brexit: Fishing, farming and science set for biggest shake-up in 70 years

It was hard to find a more pro-remain sector of the UK economy than Britain's scientific research sector.

Science is, and always has been an international enterprise dependent on the free movement of people and just as importantly research funds. And most of the money, and people, come from the EU.

The government's announcement this week for a fast-track visa system for "top talent" in research has allayed some of the scientists' fears.

They particularly like the fact the UK research funding agency will manage the scheme, not the Home Office.

The government has also promised, in the near-term at least, to match research funding British scientists will lose out on post-Brexit.

But researchers warn they have already lost their leadership role in EU funded schemes and are concerned about access to data created with EU funds.

The only concerns immediately after Brexit are whether it will affect supplies of specialist chemicals or equipment -- sometimes with very short shelf lives.

Medical researchers are also concerned about the movement of patients involved in pan-European clinical trials.

Science is, and always has been an international enterprise dependent on the free movement of people and just as importantly research funds. Credit: PA

On the environment, Brexit is promising to deliver the biggest shake-up in the UK environment in 70 years.

Our departure means the immediate end of the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy.

Widely criticised by fishermen, farmers, and environmentalists alike, the government has promised it will use the shake-up to introduce new policies to protect and enhance the environment, to replace the wildlife and habitats destroyed by mis-management of land.

Farmers will be rewarded not for the area of land they farm, but for the "public goods" their land provides: preventing flooding, preserving biodiversity or holding on to disappearing soil.

Our departure from the EU means the immediate end of the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy. Credit: PA

Environmentalists don't object to that, but are very worried that by leaving Europe we lose access to the European Court which has been used to force previous governments to rid Britain's beaches of sewage, reduce air pollution and undo damage done by industry.

The government promises to create a new watchdog, the Office of Environmental Protection, in its place.

But because the body answers to government, not parliament, campaigners fear it will not hold government to account. In the near term there won't be any huge changes.

Funding for farmers won't change until 2021. However, some observers warn trade impacts of Brexit could force desperate farmers or fishermen to over-exploit land or fish stocks to stay afloat - potentially having an immediate impact on the environment.