Beyond Brexit: What will change after the UK leaves the European Union?

ITV News' experts and special correspondents have been thinking about how the landscape could change in their respective fields post-Brexit.

From the difficulties of securing a "deep and meaningful" trade deal to potential staffing shortages in the NHS, life outside the Brussels club will present many challenges.

  • Timetables, trade deals, and wealth generation - by ITV News Business & Economics Editor Joel Hills

To what degree these trade routes will be damaged when we leave the EU? Credit: PA

To exchange is a human instinct, as far as we can tell, we've done it for as long as our species has been around.

Trade shapes our culture, our personalities and our politics. Very importantly, trade also generates wealth and jobs.

Everyday good and services flow between the UK and the rest of the world but the 27 countries which are members of the European Union are collectively our most important trading partners.

The question is to what degree these vital trade routes will be harmed as we leave?

To read Joel's full analysis, click here.

  • From passports to mobile phone roaming: How will Brexit change my everyday life?

What will change in the immediate aftermath of the UK leaving the EU? Credit: PA / Unsplash

As the United Kingdom leaves the EU, it enters an 11 month long transition period. The purpose of this is to firm-up the UK's relationship with the EU from the start of 2021.

During that time, the rules around EU roaming, bringing back alcohol and cigarettes, and border controls will mostly remain the same.

But change is afoot. Experts are warning Britons to be aware of scams on the rise as fraudsters seek to capitalise on the change of legislation around the divorce.

There are also warnings around house prices and changes for British Nationals seeking to work, live and study in the EU after Brexit.

You can find out more on what will change here.

  • Science & the environment - by ITV News Science Editor Tom Clarke

Science was hugely pro-Remain during the referendum and beyond. Credit: PA

It was hard to find a more pro-remain sector of the UK economy than Britain's scientific research sector.

Science is, and always has been an international enterprise dependent on the free movement of people and just as importantly research funds. And most of the money, and people, come from the EU.

The government's announcement this week for a fast-track visa system for "top talent" in research has allayed some of the scientists' fears.

But researchers warn they have already lost their leadership role in EU funded schemes and are concerned about access to data created with EU funds.

To read Tom's full analysis, click here.

  • Security & Intelligence services - by ITV News Security Editor Rohit Kachroo

A former MI5 chief says it's about 'minimising the downside' of Brexit. Credit: AP

In terms of the sharing of intelligence between UK security services and its European neighbours, very little will change immediately after Brexit Day and during the transition period.

It’s less clear how things will look after that.

British politicians have long implied that the strength of the UK’s intelligence agencies and military were among their strongest cards in their negotiations with the EU.

They’re probably right - but those relationships do work both ways.

Intelligence chiefs in France and Germany have indicated that they don’t want to do anything differently after Brexit.

And many of those relationships are built on bilateral or multilateral relationships rather than EU membership.

For now, the UK will continue to have access to Europol’s databases. Police chiefs will be concerned if that doesn't continue.

Speaking about Brexit, Lord Jonathan Evans, a former MI5 director-general, said "our task is to minimise the downside”.

  • NHS faces multiple challenges - by ITV News Health Correspondent Emily Morgan

The NHS will face multiple challenges over the coming months.

There are a number of issues that Brexit will through up, number one is staffing.

Currently 5.5% of the 1.2 million workforce of the NHS in England come from the EU and a massive 9% of the 1.3 workers in social care.

With more than 100,000 vacancies already in the NHS, the impact on the service’s ability to fill those posts will be huge, especially since it’s estimated an extra 5,000 internationally-recruited nurses will be needed each year to plug shortages.

Any real impact will depend on the migration policy and the potential barriers put in place.

To read Emily's full analysis, click here.

  • Squeeze on social care - by ITV News Social Affairs Producer Reshma Rumsey

The social care systems is already creaking at the seams. Credit: PA

The social care system already on its knees, and relies heavily on employing a workforce from EU countries.

The numbers of people joining the workforce has fallen and is likely to continue to fall.

Around 130,000 new care workers are needed every year to cope with the current demand and EU migrants play a vital role in providing these services.

If numbers continue to fall it will become more difficult and more expensive to provide these services.

To read Reshma's full analysis, click here.

  • Moving the goal posts - by ITV News Sports Editor Steve Scott

The goal posts could be moving for transfers to the Premier League. Credit: PA

If you cast your eyes around the increasingly cosmopolitan Premier League it will probably dawn on you quite quickly, given the number of European players who pull on an English club shirt every week, that Friday is not just a big deal for the country but for football, too.

Because Friday will also prove to be the last day of the transfer window as we know it.

Yes, of course, everything remains the same during the near year-long transition but for football that could mean a period of stockpiling young European football talent.

Why? Well, post Brexit proper, as the rules stand, they will be impossible to pick up because the world’s governing body FIFA outlaws poaching international players under the age of 18.

Europe’s best young prospects are readily available to English clubs now but that only applies for as long as we’re in the EU.

To read Steve's full analysis, click here.

  • Music, movies and arts - by ITV News Arts Editor Nina Nannar

Colin Firth won a slew of gongs for his role in The King's Speech, part-funded by European money. Credit: PA

In this transition period, taking us until the end of December 2020, freedom of movement ie the movement of talent, personnel, artists etc can continue.

Organisations like Creative Europe, founded by the union to encourage investment in the creative industries across the continent - its funding helped pay for the Oscar-winning film The King’s Speech - are still open for business for those seeking funding for their projects.

There are plenty of big beasts in residence in the UK - Netflix, Disney, Warner Bros, Comcast (the new owner of Sky) - all strong enough to take any adverse movements in the value of the pound, the smaller independents may well be viewing their own future further down the line with a little more trepidation

Although it would seem there is a year’s grace, there is some concern that significant numbers of EU workers in the creative industries here, particularly in the visual effects and animation sectors, have yet to apply for settled status which would allow them to stay in the UK long term after Brexit.

To read Nina's full analysis, click here.