World Athletics has issued new legislation on hi-tech running trainers, after it came under pressure to clamp-down on "technological doping".

The Nike Vaporfly trainers, which have become popular with long-distance and marathon runners, have come under heavy criticism from critics.

They claim the technology used equates to "technological doping", while Nike says the shoes improves running economy by four per cent.

The thick sole with a carbon fibre wedged in the middle gives runners extra cushioning and improves energy return.

With the possible advantages the shoe can give competitors, long distance athletes are turning to them in their droves, with almost half of the top 150 marathon times in history being set by athletes wearing the trainers.

The Vaporfly trainers have escaped a ban from the athletics governing body, although custom-built Nike Alpha Fly prototypes which Eliud Kipchoge wore to break the two-hour marathon mark fall foul of the rule changes.

ITV News takes a look back at some of the other sporting equipment which has been given the boot over the years.

Eliud Kipchoge wears Nike Alphafly trainers during his sub two hour marathon. Credit: AP

Full body swim suits

The full body plastic swimsuits made famous by Michael Phelps and other Olympians in Beijing were outlawed by swimming's governing body in 2010.

FINA banned the polyurethane and neoprene during competitions, citing they gave the swimmers more bouyancy and speed which led to a cascade of world records.

Phelps celebrates his 100m butterfly World Record win in Rome 2009. Credit: AP

From their introduction in 2008, nearly 200 world records fell, including 43 at the World Championships in Rome in 2009.

At the Beijing Olympics, Michael Phelps won a historic eight gold medals, breaking seven world records on the way.

Swimmers now wear knee-length suits for men, with women wearing shoulder to knee suits, made out of textile fabric.

Dennis Lillee's infamous aluminium cricket bat

Australia's Dennis Lillee went down in history for bringing out an aluminium cricket bat during his innings against England during the Ashes in December 1979.

The ComBat caused much debate on the day and Lillee was instructed not to use the bat by the umpires, with complaints the bat was damaging the ball.

There were no rules against the use of the bat at the time but shortly after, cricket's governing body ruled bats must be made of wood.

Polara golf ball

The self-correcting golf ball was designed to make it virtually impossible to slice or put swerve on your shot.

The ball, which is designed to fly straight, are still sold but are not allowed in major golf tournaments.

Obree's homebuilt bicycle

Graeme Obree built his own bike from bits salvaged from old washing machine parts, only for cycling's governing body to ban them.

The UCI ruled that Obree's homemade bike gave him a more aerodynamic bodyposition, which he used to help him.

Two of Obree’s riding positions were later banned from the sport, and the UCI now maintains a strict list of criteria, from tube thickness to saddle setback, for what constitutes a competitive bike.

Scotland's Graeme Obree on his way to the gold medal and a world record in the men's individual 4km pursuit in Hamar, Norway. Credit: AP

Anchoring long putters in golf

Although not a banned piece of equipment, golf moved quickly to ban the use of anchoring.

This refers to the act of bracing the grip-end of a golf club and pushing it against your body, to create a stable "anchor point".

Adam Scott of Australia putts on the 15th green during the first round of The Players championship golf tournament at TPC Sawgrass in Ponte Vedra Beach. Credit: AP

The technique became popular in the 1980s with the introduction of long putters, with players using their bodies to anchor their club against.

The long putters are still allowed but anchoring to the body for any stroke is strictly outlawed.