“We have waged a fierce battle against the invisible enemy," the president said in a pre-recorded address to the UN General Assembly.
“As we pursue this bright future, we must hold accountable the nation which unleashed this plague on to the world: China.”
While he blames Beijing, and often refers to Covid-19 as the "Chinavirus" he has been harshly criticised for his administration’s track record in battling coronavirus, now a top issue in his bid for re-election.
Democratic opponent Joe Biden has accused the president of bungling the response to Covid-19 and being responsible for the US having more deaths than any other nation.
The president encouraged the reopening of US society in the summer even as the virus was spreading rapidly.
He has been holding campaign rallies in places that are currently suffering high numbers of cases but attendees often don't wear face masks or practice social distancing.
President Trump has argued the Chinese government acted irresponsibly in allowing the virus to spread.
“The United Nations must hold China accountable for their actions,” Mr Trump said.
The president also took aim at China’s environmental record and the UN itself.
“Those who attack America’s exceptional environmental record while ignoring China’s rampant pollution are not interested in the environment.
They only want to punish America. And I will not stand for it,” he said.
Earlier in his administration, Mr Trump hosted Chinese President Xi Jinping at his Florida club and spoke warmly of their relationship, but since then relations have hit an all-time low.
Mr Trump is not popular at the UN and his speech this year came at a time when members are pushing back against Washington.
On Monday, he declared that all US sanctions against Iran have been reimposed, a move that most of the rest of the world rejects as illegal.
His statement came shortly after he signed an executive order spelling out how the US will enforce the “snapback” of sanctions.
“My actions today send a clear message to the Iranian regime and those in the international community who refuse to stand up to Iran,” he said.
The US said it was reimposing sanctions on Iran for being in non-compliance with the 2015 nuclear deal between Tehran and global powers.
President Trump pulled out of the deal in 2018 which Iran agreed to curb its nuclear programme in exchange for billions of dollars in sanctions relief.
Few UN member states believe the US has the legal standing to restore the sanctions because President Trump withdrew from the agreement.
The US argues it retains the right to do so as an original participant in the deal and a member of the council.