The island had been a popular tourist destination before the December 9 eruption in 2019 - claiming the lives of 22 people.
Many have since questioned why tourists were allowed to visit, especially after experts monitoring seismic activity raised the volcano's alert level two weeks before the eruption.
Watch ITV News' report from the time:
The names of the 10 organisations and three individuals charged are being kept secret for now under New Zealand’s legal rules.
But two agencies which rely on public funding – GNS Science and the National Emergency Management Agency – have disclosed they are among those charged.
Some of the others charged are likely to include private companies which took tourists to the island. The individuals charged were either company directors or managers.
Each of the organisations faces a maximum fine of 1.5 million New Zealand dollars (£820,000).
Each individual charged faces a maximum fine of 300,000 New Zealand dollars (£158,000).
The charges were brought by New Zealand’s WorkSafe agency and are separate from an ongoing police investigation into the eruption - this could result in more charges.
Families of some of those killed and injured have also filed their own lawsuits.
“This deeply tragic event was unexpected. But that does not mean it was unforeseeable,” said Phil Parkes, the chief executive of WorkSafe.
Mr Parkes said the victims - which included tourists and guides - all had an expectation they could go to the island believing the organisations involved had fulfilled requirements to look after their health and safety.
There were 47 people on White Island when superheated steam erupted, leaving most of the survivors with severe burns.
Many of those killed and injured were tourists who had been traveling from Australia on the Royal Caribbean cruise ship Ovation of the Seas.
Of those killed, 14 were Australian, five were American, two were New Zealanders and one was from Germany.
White Island - the tip of an undersea volcano - is also known by its indigenous Maori name Whakaari.
WorkSafe had a statutory one-year deadline to file charges, which is why its announcement came close to the anniversary.
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said: “At this time, I know all New Zealanders’ thoughts are with the families and those who experienced loss or injury.
"There is no easy process from here. But it is the job of WorkSafe to make sure that if there are questions to be answered, that they play a role in leading the charge on that.”