Video report by ITV News Political Correspondent Daniel Hewitt
The Education Secretary has said students in England "won't have missed out on" teaching for the subject on which they will take exams in the Summer.
Gavin Williamson said regional differences in Covid disruption - with some students missing more face-to-face teaching than others - would not impact pupils.
Mr Williamson has defended a host of measures announced to help compensate for disruption caused to students by the Covid pandemic - denying the system leaves inequalities still between different parts of the country.
But despite different areas experiencing different levels of disruption due to Covid infection - with some schools closing more regularly than others - Mr Williamson said "it doesn't matter" that pupils have missed teaching.
The Education Secretary told ITV News: "It doesn't matter that they [students] have missed school. Every area that they are going to be examined on, every child - wherever they are in the country - we'll make sure that that area has been fully covered."
He added: "Yes there may be some areas of the curriculum that they will probably have missed out on as a result of it [Covid] but on the areas that they are going to be examined on they won't have missed out on."
Mr Williamson said "by giving schools advance notice of the topic areas it means that they are able to use the final few months of the academic year [...] to focus that learning on those topic areas".
Dr Mary Bousted from the National Union of Education has reaction:
It is understood that grading changes simply based on the region you live in have been ruled out.
Additional exams will also be run to give students a second chance to sit a paper if the main exams or assessments are missed due to illness or self-isolation, the Department for Education (DfE) said.
The announcement of new measures comes after the fiasco around grading of GCSE and A-level students in the summer, when exams were cancelled amid the coronavirus pandemic and school closures.
Thousands of A-level students had their results downgraded from school estimates by an algorithm, before Ofqual announced a U-turn, allowing them to use teachers’ original predictions instead.
In October, the government announced that the 2021 exams would still go ahead in England, but that the majority of them would be delayed by three weeks to give pupils more time to catch up on learning.
Mr Williamson on Thursday defended not cancelling exams, saying they were the best measure - as opposed to teacher assessments.
Gavin Williamson tells ITV's Good Morning Britain it would not be right to cancel exams in England next year:
On Thursday, Mr Williamson unveiled a package of measures to ensure that the grades students receive are as fair as possible following growing calls for the Government to do more to compensate for missed learning.
Students will be given aids, such as formula sheets, in some exams to boost their confidence and reduce the amount of information they need to memorise, as part of the measures.
A new expert group will be set up to look at differential learning and to monitor the variation in the impact of the pandemic on students across the country.
But it is understood that grading changes simply based on the region you live in have been ruled out.
Under new contingency measures, students who miss one or more exams due to self-isolation or sickness, but who have still completed a proportion of their qualification, will still receive a grade.
If a student misses all their assessments in a subject, they will have the opportunity to sit a contingency paper held shortly after the main exam series.
These tests are expected to run in the first few weeks of July.
If a pupil has a legitimate reason to miss all their papers, then a validated teacher-informed assessment can be used but only once all chances to sit an exam have passed.
Students who are clinically extremely vulnerable will also be given the option to sit an exam at home if they cannot be in school due to restrictions.
It comes after DfE figures revealed that more than a fifth (22%) of secondary school pupils were absent from school last week for the second week running.
The DfE has also announced that full, graded Ofsted inspections will not resume until the summer term and exam results will not be included in school performance tables this year.
Sats exams in Year 6 will still go ahead – except for the grammar, punctuation and spelling test – but tests in Year 2 will be suspended for a year.
Paul Whiteman, general secretary of school leaders’ union NAHT, said: “In September, we were faced with secondary exams proceeding unaltered, all primary assessments going ahead as normal, full publication of performance data, and a return to inspection in January.
“This announcement brings with it some much-needed relief to school leaders who have been operating in ‘emergency mode’ for most of this year.”
Geoff Barton, general secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL), said: “This solution to next year’s A-level and GCSE exams will make them as fair as they can be in the circumstances.
“It is not perfect – nothing can be, given the fact that learning has been so disrupted by coronavirus and that pupils have been affected to vastly different extents.”
Ofqual’s interim chief regulator Dame Glenys Stacey said: “Summer 2020 results were the first pandemic results. They were unique when compared to previous years, with higher grades overall.
“We have decided to carry forward the overall level of generosity from 2020 through to summer 2021, in recognition of the baleful and continuing impact of the pandemic.
“This is an unprecedented step. Having consulted widely, we think it the right thing to do.”
It is understood the level of generosity will be evened out across subjects to prevent significant differences in the number of students awarded top grades depending on the subject.
Advance notice of exam topics is not expected to be made public until the end of January so students can focus their revision period from February onwards.
But James Turner, chief executive of the Sutton Trust, said the measure would need “careful management” to ensure it does not widen existing attainment gaps “as students at more affluent schools may have better access to the resources to prepare these topics in detail and at short notice”.
Meanwhile, Bill Watkin, chief executive of the Sixth Form Colleges Association, said concerns remained about the differential impact that Covid-19 has had on pupils in different areas of the country.
He added: “More thought also needs to go into university admissions, to ensure that students in England are not disadvantaged because they are sitting exams next year, unlike their peers in other parts of the UK.”