Britain’s first fifth century mosaic discovered in Cotswolds sheds new light on Dark Ages

A mosaic unearthed at the Roman villa in Chedworth, Gloucestershire Credit: PA Media

A mosaic dating back to the Dark Ages has been unearthed by archaeologists at a Roman villa in Gloucestershire.

The find at Chedworth Roman Villa is thought to be the first fifth century mosaic found in Britain and its discovery sheds new light on the early medieval period.

Experts say the mosaic shows that the economy and standard of living in Britain did not immediately decline in the decades after the Romans left as was the widely held belief.

Previously, evidence suggested towns and villas were largely abandoned and fell into decay following the post-Roman economic crash when Britain entered the Dark Ages.

Chedworth is one of the largest Roman villas known in the country and one of the best preserved, with 35 exposed rooms and significant features including fine mosaics.

The mosaic, in Room 28 of the mansion, is an intricate design with a series of circles alternatively filled with flowers and knots forming its outer border.

The mosaic was unearthed at the Roman villa in Chedworth, Gloucestershire Credit: National Trust/PA

Martin Papworth, an archaeologist for the National Trust, said: “The fifth century is a time which marks the beginning of the sub-Roman period, often called the ‘Dark Ages’, a time from which few documents survive and archaeological evidence is scarce.

“After almost 400 years, Britain had been lost by Rome, units of the regular army and members of the civil service were either being withdrawn or no longer paid in cash and their wages in the form of coinage ceased to be brought into Britain by the central government.

“This saw production decline, and the craft and service industries became unsustainable.

“It has generally been believed that most of the population turned to subsistence farming to sustain themselves and, after the break with Rome, Britannia’s administrative system broke down into a series of local fiefdoms.

“What is so exciting about the dating of this mosaic at Chedworth is that it is evidence for a more gradual decline.

“The creation of a new room and the laying of a new floor suggests wealth, and a mosaic industry continuing 50 years later than had been expected.”

Charcoal and bone sealed within a foundation trench in the north range of Chedworth Villa provided radiocarbon dates that show the wall could not have been built until after AD 424, with the mosaic later than this date.

Chedworth is one of the largest Roman villas known in the country and one of the best preserved Credit: National Trust/PA

Experts believe the dated wall of the villa was constructed to divide an existing room and the mosaic was laid there. Radiocarbon dating revealed the mosaic was designed and created in the middle of the fifth century.

The best preserved parts of the mosaic are on the margins of the room, as central areas saw more wear and tear.

A six-year programme of archaeological digs and research began at the site in 2012.

Mr Papworth added: “It is interesting to speculate why Chedworth Villa’s owners were still living in this style well into the fifth century.

“It seems that in the West Country, the Romanised way of life was sustained for a while.”

He said many large, richly-decorated Roman villas have been found in the countryside around nearby Cirencester, which was the second largest Romano-British town after London by the end of the fourth century.

An expert at work at the Chedworth site Credit: National Trust/PA

There have also been finds of fifth-sixth century pottery from Africa and Palestine among the ruins at Chedworth, which are strong indicators of sub-Roman high-status occupation at the time.

Stephen Cosh, who has written about all of Britain’s known Roman mosaics, described the dating of the mosaic as “tremendously exciting” and of “enormous significance”.

He added: “I am still reeling from the shock of this dating.

“There are very late Roman mosaics in the area for which archaeology can only ever say they must be later than a particular date, without being able to say how much later.

“But none has ever been suspected to be this late. It will be important to research further sites in the region to see whether we can demonstrate a similar refurbishment at other villas which continued to be occupied in the fifth century.”