Britons were among a group of passengers on board an international commercial flight out of Afghanistan, in the first large-scale evacuation since Western forces left the country.
Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab said 13 Britons were among around 200 foreigners able to flee the country on a Qatar Airways flight to Doha.
Afghanistan’s Taliban rulers had said they would let foreigners and Afghans with valid travel documents leave the country after they regained control.
The flight from Kabul is a sign that some movement is being permitted.
Mr Raab said in a statement: "We are grateful to our Qatari friends for facilitating a flight carrying 13 British nationals from Kabul to safety in Doha today.
"We expect the Taliban to keep to their commitment to allow safe passage for those who want to leave."
Under the watchful eyes of Taliban fighters patrolling the tarmac, passengers presented their documents for checking and sniffer dogs inspected luggage laid out on the ground.
A source told ITV News US, Canadian, Ukrainian, and German were also thought to have been on board.
Kabul airport was left extensively damaged in the aftermath of the chaotic evacuation in August - as international forces withdrew after 20 years in the country.
Technical experts from Qatar and Turkey were brought in to restore operations and staff at the airport included some who had returned to work following the harrowing scenes during the airlift operation.
The final British troops left Afghanistan by August 31, having helped to evacuate more than 15,000 people out of the country.
But hundreds of Afghans who helped the UK during the war have been left behind and face the dangers of Taliban rule.