The billionaire entrepreneur unveiled the social media platform's new chief after he announced he would be stepping down from the role.
"I am excited to welcome Linda Yaccarino as the new CEO of Twitter!" Musk wrote in a tweet on Friday.
The SpaceX and Tesla founder added Yaccarino "will focus primarily on business operations, while I focus on product design & new technology".
The announcement comes after Musk revealed on Thursday he had found an unnamed replacement, who would start work within six weeks.
Yaccarino has worked at NBCUniversal for nearly 12 years.
In April, she interviewed Musk in front of hundreds of advertisers at a marketing conference, in Miami.
A number of advertisers left Twitter in the wake of Musk's $44 billion (£35 billion) acquisition of the platform last November.
Ms Yaccarino could help restore advertisers' faith in Twitter, advertising agency DiGo founder and creative chief Mark DiMassimo said.
Want a quick and expert briefing on the biggest news stories? Listen to our latest podcasts to find out What You Need To Know...
He noted Yaccarino had successfully integrated and digitised advertisement sales at Comcast and NBC, adding that her track record of cross-selling adverts across different platforms could appeal to Musk as he tries to grow Twitter.
"If anyone can translate the Musk vision into advantages for marketers she'll be able to do it," Mr DiMassimo said.
"Even though there's skepticism and all marketers live in the 'show me' state right now with regard to Twitter, if in fact she does go to Twitter this is a powerfully reassuring move."
Musk has said his role at Twitter will "transition to being exec chair & CTO, overseeing product, software & sysops".
He had previously said he would resign from the role "as soon as I find someone foolish enough to take the job".
Last November, he was questioned in court about how he splits his time among Tesla and his other companies, including SpaceX and Twitter.
Musk said he never intended to be CEO of Tesla, and that he did not want to be chief executive of any other companies either, preferring to see himself as an engineer.
Musk's time as Twitter CEO has triggered periods of criticism, including his decision to sack more than half of the workforce he originally inherited.
He has also introduced a paid-subscription verification process for Twitter users, ending the blue check system in favour of new product, 'Twitter Blue'.
Musk also came under fire when Twitter reactivated the accounts of figures who had previously been suspended, including former US president Donald Trump.
The Partygate: The Inside Story podcast brings you fresh revelations and our whistleblowers in their own words in the definitive behind-closed-doors story of how ITV News uncovered one of the biggest scandals of our era