Macron officially opened the tenth edition of the tournament moments after hundreds of performers took to the pitch at Paris's Stade de France.
Oscar-winning French actor Jean Dujardin directed the ceremony, which took place in sweltering conditions ahead of the tournament's opening game between France and New Zealand.
France are hosting the World Cup for the for the third time, although this will be the first where every game is staged within the country.
The ceremony featured leaping acrobats, a giant scrum with dozens in fancy dress, and a massive inflatable Eiffel Tower which was placed in the middle of the pitch. Dujardin himself was also hoisted above the pitch at one point.
Elsewhere, the aerobatics demonstration unit from France's Air Force - Patrouille de France - performed a flypast over the stadium, leaving behind a trail of colours matching the French flag.
Moments after the ceremony concluded, Macron was jeered by fans as he walked onto the pitch.
Chants of "Allez Les Bleus" rang out around the stadium, but some of the jeering continued, before other fans broke out into spontaneous chants of the French national anthem, La Marseillaise.
Macron, whose unpopular pension plan has led to social tensions, stood with his arms folded and applauded World Rugby chairman Bill Beaumont after he finished his speech.
But when it was Macron's turn to speak, the jeering became louder and the 45-year-old was barely audible.
The crowd cheered in unison only at the end when Macron declared the tournament to be open.
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