The Transport Secretary has insisted smart motorways are safe as he announces an action plan to improve them.
A review has found that overall they are as safe as conventional motorways, although not in every way.
Data shows risks that are lower on smart motorways include tailgating, rapid changes of speeds, vehicles drifting off the carriageway and being driven too fast. Although the risk of a collision between a moving and stationary vehicle is higher.
Future changes include scrapping dynamic hard shoulder motorways, making sure there are places to stop within 3/4 of a mile when needed and installing 10 new emergency areas on the existing M25 smart motorway while considering other points nationally.
Highways England will investigate what more can be done on sections of the M6 and M1 where there have been a number of incidents.
£5 million will be spent on campaigns to increase driver awareness of smart motorways and how to use them.