Birmingham is among the top three congested cities in the UK with motorists spending more than 9% of their commute in traffic.
In the largest ever study of its kind, the Global Traffic Scorecard analysed and ranked the impact of traffic congestion in 1,360 cities across 38 countries worldwide.
The UK ranked in the top ten most congested countries in the world, the third most congested in Europe behind Russia and Turkey.
111 cities and towns were analysed across the UK, with the direct and indirect costs of congestion for all drivers totaling more than £37.7 billion in 2017, an average of £1,168 per driver.
Motorists in Birmingham spent over 9% of their total drive time in congestion last year, costing the city £632 million.
London, Manchester, Luton and Edinburgh are also among the top 10 in the UK.