Manchester is a more liveable destination than London according to the latest Economist Intelligence Unit 'Global Liveability Ranking'.
The survey, which provides scores for lifestyle challenges in 140 cities worldwide, ranks Manchester (43rd) up three places on last year thanks to liveability declines elsewhere. Meanwhile, London saw an unchanged ranking of 53rd – ten places lower than Manchester.
Despite the ten place difference both cities sit comfortably in the top tier of liveability and just 1.6% separates London's score of 87.2 from Manchester's of 88.8 (where 100 is ideal).
London's lower score reflects the capital suffering from a higher perceived threat from terrorism and petty crime, even though it has more cultural attractions and a more robust infrastructure, compared to Manchester.
Jon Copestake, editor of the report, said:
It is difficult to argue that one city is 'better' than another but it can be argued that Manchester has marginally fewer obstacles to people’s lifestyle because the threat of terrorism and petty crime is higher in London.
Meanwhile, further terrorist attacks over the last 12 months have continued to undermine liveability in continental Europe.
Incidents in France and Belgium have contributed to a decrease in the scores for ten of the region's cities. As well as Brussels and Paris heightened risk of attack has led to lower ratings for Zurich and Geneva, as well as Luxembourg, Oslo, Rome and Lisbon.
Berlin and Frankfurt have also seen similar declines having suffered from protests and unrest in the past year.
Elsewhere in the world Melbourne continues to be ranked as the world's most liveable city but Vienna has maintained its position in second place. Unrest and high profile mass shootings have led to declines in the scores of five cities in the US. Even Australia, home to many of the world's most liveable cities, has not been immune.
A hostage-taking incident in Sydney in 2014 has raised concerns and vigilance over the threat of terror there, pushing the Australian city out of the top ten. Heightened tensions in the South China Sea have also lowered liveability scores for Chinese cities.
Only six cities have managed to buck the trend with improving liveability, although of these only Tehran has seen a noteworthy change. The Iranian capital has benefitted from the thawing of international relations, moving four places up the ranking and out of the very bottom tier of liveability.