Manchester has been revealed as the second most congested city in the UK.
The UK has the third worst traffic congestion country in Europe, according to traffic information company Inrix.
Drivers are spending an average of 32 hours a year stuck in jams during peak periods in the UK, according to traffic information company Inrix.
Researchers calculated that the direct and indirect costs of hold-ups reached £31billion last year, at an average of £968 per driver.
Congestion is the most severe in London, which was found to be the seventh worst city out of more than 1,000 analysed around the world.
Manchester is the second most congested UK city, followed by Aberdeen, Birmingham and Edinburgh.