A series of war memorials erected a century ago, before the end of the First World War, have been given protected status.
The memorials built by communities in 1917 range from a grave marker for children killed in a classroom during an air raid to a peace cross erected as a plea for peace and a tribute to the sacrifices made by the village where it stands.
Eight memorials reaching their century this year have been given Grade II listed status by the Government on the advice of heritage agency Historic England as the UK marks Armistice Day.
And an obelisk marking the site of a hospital for Indian troops has had its Grade II listing updated to fully reflect its historical importance.
Although most First World War memorials were not constructed until the end of the conflict, some were built before the fighting finished, providing a "focal point" to people's grief and a symbol to those still fighting, Historic England said.
Duncan Wilson, chief executive of Historic England, said: "These memorials were an important indicator of society's attitude as the war progressed and as the loss of life increased to unprecedented levels.
"They were not just a focal point for people's grief but also seen as a symbol to those still fighting."
Contemporary newspaper reports indicate people wanted to erect war shrines from 1916, but they were controversial as some saw them as anti-patriotic.
The early shrines became a precursor to the national movement following the war to memorialise those who fought and died.
The eight newly listed memorials are:
:: Grave Marker Poplar Air Raid, East London Cemetery, Plaistow, London, marking the mass grave of of 15 out of 18 children killed by a bombing raid on June 13 1917, most of whom were just five or six years old;
:: East London Cemetery Company War Memorial, Plaistow, London, which carries an all-encompassing dedication to servicemen, their families and the British allies;
:: Amington Cemetery War Memorial, Tamworth, Staffordshire, presented by a local businessman whose son had been reported missing, but returned home at the end of the war having been a prisoner in Germany.
:: Burton in Wirral Peace Cross, Cheshire, which was not erected to commemorate fallen servicemen by name but as a plea for peace and a tribute to the sacrifices made by the village during the conflict.
:: Ecton War Memorial Shrine, Northampton, which was funded by Mrs Edith Sotheby, whose son Lionel Frederick Southwell Sotherby died in 1915, with his name the first on the roll of honour;
:: Patrington War Memorial, Holderness, Humberside, a striking memorial on the main road, which when built carried the names of all the village's men who were serving in the war, as well as those who had lost their lives.
:: St Giles War Memorial, Reading, a calvary cross war memorial constructed mainly of teak, and dedicated on Christmas Day 1917.
:: Winsford First World War Memorial, Over, Winsford, Cheshire, erected in the churchyard at the parish church of St Chad in 1917 and names of local servicemen killed added as the parish was notified - with some 200 now on the memorial
One memorial has had its Grade II listing enhanced:
:: Memorial Obelisk to Convalescent Depot for Indian Troops, Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, a granite obelisk marking the site of the hospital that served Indian soldiers and one of only two freestanding memorials in England commemorating Indian servicemen.