More must be done by the new government to prevent flooding in the North West, according to a leading think-tank.
IPPR North is calling on Prime Minister Boris Johnson to commit resources to communities at risk of flooding.
The focus they suggest should shift from building dams and barriers to better scrutiny of land use, development and architectural design.
Report author Jack Hunter said: "Too many families in the North will be unable to spend Christmas at home this year owing to floods.
"Long after the TV cameras leave flood affected areas people and communities are left to deal with the practical, financial and emotional devastation of flooding.
"Floods have a huge impact on our economy too, yet we spend less on preventing them than we do fixing the damage they cause. This doesn't make sense and it must change."