These are the stunning London landscapes of the future as predicted by engineers and architects. They feature floating and underwater cities, homes created by 3-D printers and animals grazing on top of super-skyscrapers.
Experts also believe Londoners will inhabit ultra-deep basements and buildings with their own complex micro-climates.
And when it comes to the daily commute, they forsee mega-bridges spanning entire cities and spaceports with direct access to the moon and Mars.
They came from a distinguished panel including Dr Rhys Morgan, Director of Engineering and Education at the Royal Academy of Engineering and award-winning architects and lecturers at the University of Westminster.
The top 10 most likely architectural advancements within the next 100 years are:
- 1. Super-deep basements
- 2. Floating sea cities
- 3. High-rise or rooftop farms
- 4. 3D printed homes
- 5. Buildings with their own micro-climates
- 6. Bridges that span entire cities
- 7. Spaceports with easy access to the moon and Mars
- 8. Super-high buildings - 'cities in the sky'
- 9. Underwater cities
- 10.Collapsible/stackable living pods
Multi-layered basement extensions are already being built, particularly in high-value, densely-populated areas of London, and the experts said future homes may have as many floors below ground as they do above.
Floating sea cities harnessing solar and tidal energy were voted the next most likely development, followed by urban high rise farms where crops and animals are kept in tall, layered, space-saving structures.
3D printed 'off-the-shelf' homes and buildings with their own micro-climates that mean we can live in previously uninhabitable areas complete the top five.