Malone Mukwende is a second year medical student at St George's University in London.

He noticed he was only taught about clinical signs and symptoms on white skin and decided to create 'Mind the Gap'.

Malone Mukwende is a second year medical student Credit: Malone Mukwende

This is a clinical handbook which looks at how medical conditions present differently on black and brown skin.

I first started noticing this problem when I was in my first year of university. Often we would get taught signs and symptoms on white skin but I knew this wouldn’t entirely translate in the same way on my type of skin. Often the textbooks we would use as a reference, would often just show the symptoms on white skin


Kawasaki disease is a condition that mainly affects children under the age of 5. One of the characteristic symptoms of the disease is a rash.

But the condition shows up differently on black and brown skin as it would on white skin.

Kawasaki disease comparison on different skin tones. Credit: Malone Mukwende

Kawasaki disease presents differently on different skins. On the right side we can see it presents as red. On the left side it is much harder to spot. Differences in which these two patients will present.

Malone Mukwende

Malone believes his handbook will improve patient satisfaction within the BAME community.

I feel like this handbook will help with patients satisfaction the patients will be able to relate what they are seeing on the screen because doctors are showing them symptoms that would appear on their skin. It will also help them to have confidence in their medical professionals. 

Malone Mukwende,Medical Student
Mind the Gap handbook looks at clinical signs on black and brown skin Credit: Malone Mukwende