Video report by ITV News Meridian Mel Bloor
The University of Oxford is recruiting for volunteers for a new paratyphoid vaccine.
In the first study of its kind, participants will see whether the jab can prevent infection.
Around 76 people, aged 18 to 55 and in good health, will either receive two doses of the new vaccine or a placebo.
The University of Oxford is in collaboration with the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Professor Sir Andrew Pollard, Director of the Oxford Vaccine Group and Chief Investigator of the trial, said:
"Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent the 3.3 million cases of paratyphoid fever that mostly affects school-age children in South and South East Asia. This first human challenge study to evaluate a paratyphoid vaccine will bring us a step closer to reducing the burden of this affliction in the world."
The Vaccine Against Salmonella Paratyphi study will assess the immune response, efficacy and safety of a new vaccine against paratyphoid fever (a form of enteric fever similar to typhoid), which is given by mouth as a drink.
The use of a human challenge model to do this will allow an understanding of the vaccine's effectiveness without having to immunise thousands of people.
Professor Brian Angus, Director of the Oxford Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine and Global Health and Principal Investigator of the trial, said:
"Enteric fever is a common infectious disease worldwide spread by drinking contaminated water. Although mainly caused by Salmonella Typhi a quarter of cases are due to another organism Salmonella Paratyphi. A new vaccine has recently been approved for typhoid, but no vaccine currently is licensed for paratyphoid. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, the need for vaccines against these bacteria are desperately needed."
Following the trial, participants will be monitored closely and treated with antibiotics as soon as they show signs of infection.
After two weeks if they do not show any signs of infection. Results are expected in 2023.
Dr Maheshi Ramasamy, Senior Clinical Researcher and Principal Investigator of the trial, said: "Here in Oxford, we have developed safe, controlled ways of studying malaria, typhoid and COVID-19 infections in volunteers.
"Building on this experience, we will be using a human model of paratyphoid infection to study the efficacy of a new vaccine against this disease which disproportionately affects low and middle income countries."
Volunteers interested in enrolling on the study can do so online at https://trials.ovg.ox.ac.uk/trials/vasp