French Finance Minister Michel Sapin has called for an EU inquiry.
Mr Sapin said inquiries had to be conducted "at a European level".
We are a European market with European rules. It is these that have to be respected. It is these that have been violated in the United States.
However, a European Commission spokeswoman said it was "premature to comment on whether any specific immediate surveillance measures are also necessary in Europe".
Volvo withdrew an app comparing cars' emissions in 2011, after being told by that the data "could not be taken seriously".
Volkswagen's US boss has admitted he was told in spring last year of the emissions cheating affecting millions of the company's vehicles.
Volkswagen could start recalling cars containing emissions cheating software in January, according to the firm's new chief executive.