Volkswagen has said it will recall around 8.5 million diesel-engine cars in the EU after Germany requested servicing of the vehicles following the emissions scandal.
The manufacturer said it would need to be determined outside the 28-nation EU which classes of engine EA 189 were affected.
The latest engine generation EA 288 is not affected, it added.
Volvo withdrew an app comparing cars' emissions in 2011, after being told by that the data "could not be taken seriously".
Volkswagen's US boss has admitted he was told in spring last year of the emissions cheating affecting millions of the company's vehicles.
Volkswagen could start recalling cars containing emissions cheating software in January, according to the firm's new chief executive.