A Russian pilot who survived the downing of his plane said Turkish jets did not issue any warnings beforehand.
Captain Konstantin Murakhtin maintained his aircraft was flying over Syrian territory and did not violate Turkish airspace.
Mr Murakhtin was rescued and is currently at a Russian air base in Syria but his co-pilot was reportedly killed by militants on the ground.
He added that he wants to keep flying missions from the base "to pay them back for my commander".
Russian forces are reportedly unleashing a wave of air strikes on mountains near where the plane was shot down.
Mr Murakhtin said this was proving cover for advancing Syria ground forces and their Lebanese Hezbollah allies.
Turkey has shown it is willing to take on Russia after downing a Russian fighter jet.
This incident will leave the American military profoundly alarmed that the Syrian conflict is now threatening to spiral out of all control.