- Video report by ITV News Deputy Political Editor Chris Ship
Ministers chose the Heathrow Airport expansion over Gatwick to show, post-Brexit that the UK is "open for business", according to Transport Secretary Chris Grayling.
The expansion will be paid for by private companies at an estimated £17.6billion, but it is politically risky with critics within the cabinet including Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson describing it as "undeliverable".
And the resignation of Zac Goldsmith, triggering a by-election in his Richmond Park constituency has already proven the decision to be politically fragile.
Tory MPs are taking lumps out of each other on Heathrow, grammar schools and - above all - the true meaning of Brexit.
Environmentalist Goldsmith called the move "catastrophic" - and announced he will now stand as an independent in protest.
The expansion of the London airport will affect the whole of the UK, with more domestic routes, while impacting air fares and house prices.