Poor quality housing costs the NHS in Wales more than £95m per year in treatment costs, a new report has warned.
18% of homes in Wales pose an unacceptable risk to health, and poor housing costs Welsh society over £1bn a year.
The report by Public Health Wales, Community Housing Cymru, and the Building Research Establishment said poor housing is associated with poor physical and mental health.
It said improving the heating, thermal efficiency and ventilation of homes is key as well as adapting homes and providing services to reduce falls for older and disabled people.
Public Health Wales said there is a ''real human cost'' to poor housing and conditions.
The report looked at the impact of housing quality, unsuitable homes, and homelessness on health and well-being in Wales.