NHS hospitals made a record £174 million in the last year from charging patients, visitors and staff for car parking, an investigation has found.<
Hospitals across England took £174,526,970 in parking charges in2016/17, up 6% on the year before, according to data collected by the Press Association.
Royal Devon & Exeter NHS Foundation Trust and North Bristol NHS Trust made over £2million.
Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and South Devon made over £1million each.
In 2015/16, £164,162,458 was raised. The Liberal Democrats have branded the charges a "tax on sickness".
Some 120 NHS trusts across England were asked to give figures on parking charges and fines under the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act, of which 111 responded.
While NHS trusts in England continue to charge patients, visitors and staff for parking, hospital parking in Scotland and Wales remains largely free.
A total of 40 trusts provided data on parking fines, showing they made £947,568 in 2016/17 from fining patients, visitors and staff on hospital grounds. This was up 32% on the £716,385 taken by the trusts the year before. The investigation found that half (56) of NHS trusts also charge disabled people for parking in some or all of their disabled spaces, with more trusts now saying they charge disabled visitors compared to last year.
The Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust came out top when it came to parking income, making £4,865,000 across the year.
This was followed by Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, which raised £3,946,312 in 2016/17, including £1,524,803 from staff and £2,421,509 from patients and visitors.
Other trusts making more than £3 million a year included Derby Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (£3,918,587 in 2016/17), Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust (£3,620,368 in 2016/17), Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (£3,073,222 in 2016/17) and Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (£3,706,845 in 2016/17).
Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust also made £3,228,301 in 2016/17. University Hospital Southampton made £3,730,000 in parking charges.
Around two-thirds of trusts that responded to the FOI are making more than £1 million in car park fees every year, with some also handing hundreds of thousands of pounds to private firms to run their car parks.
Some hospitals defended their revenues, saying some or all of the money was put back into patient care or was spent on maintaining car parks and grounds.
Others claimed their sheer size and the fact that they served busy neighbourhoods meant they took more revenue.
The investigation also looked at the cost of parking for one hour. The most expensive trust in the country for a one-hour stay is the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford, where patients pay £4 if they need to stay for an hour.
This is followed by Hereford County Hospital (£3.50 for a one-hour stay), Bristol Royal Infirmary (£3.40) and Northampton General (£3.20).
Longer-term concessions are available at some hospitals, such as for people having regular chemotherapy.
Shadow Health Secretary, Jonathan Ashworth, said: "Hospital parking charges are an entirely unfair and unnecessary burden, which disproportionately affect the most vulnerable people using our health service."
Rachel Power, chief executive of the Patients Association, said the current state of NHS finances meant it was sometimes hard to blame hospitals for trying to find money.
But she said that did not make the current situation acceptable.
Lucy Schonegevel, public affairs manager at Macmillan CancerSupport, said frequent trips to the hospital are "unavoidable when you've been diagnosed with cancer, or caring for someone who has" and people "shouldn't have to bear the financial burden of extortionate car parking fees."
- Hospital parking charges: what each NHS trust makes
A list of NHS trusts in the South West that responded to the Freedom of Information request, with details of parking income from patients/visitors/staff, plus income from fines, and whether they charge for disabled parking.
Royal Devon & Exeter NHS Foundation Trust £2,055,392 in 2016/17. Parking fines: £62,411 in 2016/7, £50,425 in 2015/6. Disabled? No
North Bristol NHS Trust £2,478,415.37 in 2016/17 (£1,817,865 visitors/patients, £660,550 staff). Fines: £46,215 in 2016/17, £32,463 in 2015/16. Private firm takes £4 per parking fine issued. 3,495 fines were issued in 2016/17. Disabled? No
Dorset County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust £550,258 in 2016/17 (£469,693 patients/visitors, £80,565 staff). Fines £985 in 2016/17 and £1,485 in 2015/16. Disabled?No
Yeovil District Hospital NHS Foundation Trust £514,104 in 2016/17 (£142,091 staff, £372,013 patients/visitor). Disabled? Yes
Weston Area Health Trust £491,427 in 2016/17. Disabled? No
University Hospitals Bristol £939,266in 2016/17 (£359,514 staff, £579,752 visitors). Parking fines: £40,529 in 2016/17, £42,307 in 2015/16.
Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust £2,327,316 in 2016/17. Disabled? Yes
Northern Devon Healthcare NHS Trust £619,434 in 2016/17 (£497,607 visitor, £121,827 staff). Parking fines: £3,238 in 2016/17, £850 in 2015/16. Disabled? Yes
Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust £1,147,542 in 2016/17. Disabled? No
Taunton & Somerset NHS Foundation Trust £338,803 in 2016/17. Disabled? Yes
Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust (has a profit-share agreement with private firm) £278,063 in 2016/17. Disabled? Yes
Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust £1,637,106 in 2016/17.
South Devon £1,029,915 in 2016/17 (£251,295 staff, £778,620 patient/visitor). Fines: £8,907 in 2016/17
Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust £1,930,677 in 2016/17. Disabled? No