Bin collections in Wiltshire will be disrupted for at least two weeks as staff go on strike in a row over pay.
Union members voted to turn down a seven percent pay increase spread over two years.
The action will affect around 250,000 homes across the county.
Employer Hills Municipal Collections said it was a disappointing outcome to a fair offer.
‘We ask for residents’ understanding’
In a statement, Hills said: "We have moved our offer considerably over the previous weeks and we firmly believe that the pay offer provides a fair settlement in relation to inflation and indexation, which we know is impacting the cost of living.
"This industrial action has been timed to coincide with the roll-out of new collection rounds, and we ask for residents’ understanding whilst we do all we can to deal with the issue."
The industrial action was due to begin on February 28 but was postponed until March 7 after Hills made an improved offer.
Union GMB said it voted to reject the company’s offer as it remains short of their expectations.
Gary Palmer, who is one of GMB’s regional organisers, explained: "It's a shame, because we thought we were getting really close to an offer our members could consider in good faith.
"We have offered a solution and it's now the responsibility of Hills to come to the table and accept that, otherwise they have to take ownership of the disruption to services and the effect this will have on homes and businesses across the county."
Hills has said it will now work with Wiltshire Council to minimise disruption to household collection services.
The council has advised residents to put out their refuse on their usual collection day.