What punishment do football teams face for racist abuse?

Montenegro's Stefan Savic (right) and England head coach Gareth Southgate (centre) shake hands after the final whistle during the UEFA Euro 2020 Qualifying, Group A match at the Podgorica City Stadium Credit: PA

England's impressive 5-1 victory over Montengro in Podgorica has been marred by allegations of racist chanting - so what punishment could those accused be given under UEFA's laws?

European football's governing body confirmed today it will open disciplinary proceedings agaist Montengro following the group A Euro 2020 qualifier.

According to UEFA's own guidelines, there should be a "minimum of a partial stadium closure" if "one or more of a member association or club's supporters" are found guilty of "insulting the human dignity of a person or group of person on whatever grounds", including on "skin colour, race, relgion or ethnic origin".

Under Article 14 of UEFA's code, which covers "racism, other discriminatory conduct and propaganda", players found guilty of racist abuse should be suspended for at least ten matches "or a specified period of time".

In extreme conditions, teams could face a points deduction or even be disqualified from a competition.

Below is some of the examples of how UEFA has dealt with incidents of racism.

Raheem Sterling's celebrated in front of the Montengro fans after scoring his goal. Credit: PA

Croatia v England in 2018 played behind closed doors

UEFA banned home and away fans for the Nations League game in Rijeka as part of Croatia's punishment after fans marked a swastika on the pitch before a Euro 2016 home game against Italy.

Fans used chemicals to spray the Nazi symbol onto the grass before the Italy game in 2015 in Split’s Poljud stadium and were hit with a 100,000 euros (£70,892) fine, docked a point from their European championship qualifier campaign and given a two-game stadium ban - the second of which was against England.

European football's governing body said in a statement: “The Uefa control, ethics and disciplinary body today decided to impose a deduction of one point on the Croatian Football Federation (HNS).

“The HNS has also been ordered to play its next two home matches in UEFA competition behind closed doors and not to play any of its remaining qualifying games at the Stadion Poljud in Split.”

England's Nations League game against Croatia in Rijeka was played behind closed doors. Credit: PA

Serbia U21 v England U21 marred by racist chants in 2012

Serbian fans chanted racist abuse at black England players during a Euro U21 qualifying match in October 2012.

Among those abused in Krusevac was Danny Rose, who was also allegedly subjected to racist chants from Montengro fans on Monday night.

UEFA was heavily criticised for the €80,000 (£65,600) fine imposed on the Football Association of Serbia. Several Serbian coaches and players were also suspended and the team was ordered to play one Under-21 match in an empty stadium.

In contrast, Denmark striker Niklas Bendtner was fined €100,000 and given a one-match ban for revealing a betting sponsor under his shorts during a Euro 2012 match against Portugal.

Anton Ferdinand tweeted: "Wow UEFA ain't serious with their punishment... So showin a sponsor is worst than racism and fighting!"

Englands U21's Danny Rose is challenged by Sebia's Darko Lazovic during the UEFA European Under-21s Championship in 2012. Credit: PA

UEFA announce plans to investigate racist chanting by FC Dynamo Kyiv fans this month

European football's governing body announced plans to investigate alleged racist chanting aimed at Chelsea's Callum Hudson-Odoi - who was also allegedly racially abused during England's game against Montengro on Monday.

The Chelsea forward was allegedly abused after scoring his team's fifth goals in a 5-0 rout against the Ukranian team on March 16.

In a statement today, a UEFA spokesman said: "An Ethics and Disciplinary Inspector has been appointed to evaluate a complaint lodged by Chelsea FC about the alleged racist abuse of the player Callum Hudson-Odoi during the above-mentioned match.

"The Ethics and Disciplinary Inspector will now evaluate whether or not there is sufficient evidence to open disciplinary proceedings against Dynamo Kyiv in accordance with Article 55(1)(f) and (2) of the UEFA Disciplinary Regulations.

"Information in respect of this evaluation will be made available in due course."

UEFA is yet to announce the findings of its investigation.

England and Chelsea striker Callum Hudson-Odoi was allegedly racially abused by Dynamo Kyiv fans and Montengro supporters this season Credit: PA

UEFA drops anti-Semitism investigation against Chelsea fans after alleged chants last year

Disiplinary proceedings against Chelsea were opened by UEFA after a small number of their fans were heard chanting anti-Semitic abuse about Tottenham fans during a Europa League game agsinst MOL Vidi in Budapest in December.

However UEFA dropped the case with no explanation in February.

Rhian Brewster (left) was part of the England U17 team which won the World Cup in 2017 Credit: PA

Investigations into racism claims against Rhian Brewster dropped in 2017

Liverpool's 18-year-old striker Rhian Brewster had his allegations of racism against an opposition player dropped after UEFA said there was not enough evidence.

The England U19 forward said he was abused by Spartak Moscow player Leonid Mironov in December 2017, but European football's governing body found no conclusive evidence.

UEFA interviewed five players from each side, as well as match officials, but none confirmed hearing any discriminatory language.

Brewster said racists would take "encouragement" from UEFA's lack of action.